Effervescent Tablets , Hypodermic Tablets , and Soluble tablets

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Effervescent Tablets

1.4.4 Tablets used to prepare solution

The tablets under this category are required to be dissolved first in water or other solvents before administration or application. This solution may be for ingestion or parenteral application or for topical use depending upon type of medicament used.

1.4.4.1 Effervescent tablets (11)

The oral dosage forms are the most popular way of taking medication despite having some disadvantages like slow absorption and thus onset of action is prolong. This can be overcome by administrating the drug in liquid from but, many APIs have limited level of stability in liquid form. So, effervescent tablets acts as an alternative dosage form. The tablet is added into a glass of water just before administration and the drug solution or dispersion is to be drunk immediately. The tablet is quickly broken apart by internal liberation of CO2 in water due to interaction between tartaric acid and citric acid with alkali metal carbonates or bicarbonates in presence of water.

Effervescent Tablets

Figure.14. Effervescent Tablets

Due to liberation in CO2 gas, the dissolution of API in water as well as taste masking effect is enhanced. The advantages of effervescent tablets compared with other oral dosage forms includes an opportunity for formulator to improve taste, a more gentle action on patient's stomach and marketing aspects. To manufacture these tablets, either wet fusion or heat fusion is adopted. The tablets are compressed soft enough to produce an effervescent reaction that is adequately rapid. Water soluble lubricants are used to prevent an insoluble scum formation on water surface. To add sweetness to the formulation, saccharin is added since sucrose is hygroscopic and add too much of bulk to the tablet. The manufacturing shall be done under controlled climatic condition to avoid effervescent reaction. The packaging is done under 25% RH at 25oC. Hands of the consumers and atmospheric moisture after opening the container can also result in loss of product quality. The most commonly used effervescent tablet today is aspirin tablet.

1.4.4.2 Hypodermic tablets

These tablets contain one or more readily water soluble ingredients and are intended to be added in water for injection of sterile water to form a clear solution which is to be injected parenterally. They were widely used by rural physician due to its portability. One bottle of sterile water was carried by the doctor to prepare many types of injectables. It can be used for medicaments whose stability in water is very poor.

1.4.4.3 Soluble tablets (12)

Tablets are pre-formed solids of uniform shape and dimensions, usually circular, with either flat or convex faces, the distance between faces being less than the diameter. Water soluble tablets are intended for application after dissolution in water and contain an active ingredient should be totally soluble in water at used concentrations. All the excipients used to formulate these tablets are required to be completely soluble in water including the glidants, binders, etc. So, manufacturing of this kind of tablets are challenge for the formulator. Companies manufacturing these tablets have patented them.

Soluble Tablets

Figure.15. Soluble Tablets

About the Author

Dr.Mukesh Gohel's picture
Author: Dr.Mukesh Gohel

Dr. Mukesh Gohel is principal, professor at the LMCP, Ahmedabad served in academics for more than 40 years. He provides training in leading pharmaceutical industries in the areas of Design of Experiments and Quality by Design. His current areas of interest are direct compression and improvement of drug dissolution.

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