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Hai friends,
My topic for this month is water purification and mechanisms involve in a typical water purifier.
Before going into water purification, let me tell you an interesting fact which tells the importance of a water purifier.
When people working in navy go on ships they carry vessels of water but when water is completely over in the mid of the sea they will use the sea water for drinking by purifying it in the water purifier.
What does water contain?
Water usually has Organic matter mineral salts microorganisms (bacteria viruses' protozoan...) Slate particles which attract bacteria. Dissolved matter like calcium, sulphates, chlorides). (1)
Measurement of purity:
The dissolved matter present in the water is called as Total Dissolved Solids. (TDS).These include minerals, salts, cations anions etc
It is measured in Parts Per Million (ppm) which means one milligram of particles dissolved in one liter of water.
It is measured using TDS meter by which we can know the scale of safety that is if it is below 100 then water is safe to drink.Mechanisms in a Water purifier (4)
1. Earlier purification used to be done by sedimentation and later on water filters were used. A water filter has candles made of ceramic which can trap the microbes and floating matter in the void spaces.
2. Later was Carbon Filtration: Carbon Filters are used which have activated carbon-it can adsorb well all the organic matter.
3. Then Microfilteration in which filter media is used of size less than 0.2 microns and thus biological contamination can be prevented.
4. Then Distillation which is an effective method for house holds. Here water is first boiled and transformed to steam which is condensed and used, but the problem is, even the pesticides and volatile organic compounds will be vaporized.
5. Even Ultraviolet technology is used in which ultraviolet rays are used for killing microbes.
6. Deionization: In this method resins are used which will replace the non water ions with water ions and make the water pure.
7. Reverse osmosis: In this water flows from highly contaminated area to a less contaminated area. This technique is widely used and it will also eliminate the minerals present in water.
Combination of the mechanisms can be used in water purifiers

Do You Know?
* Hot water will freeze faster than cold water.(2)
* If the temperature of water is decreased to -120degC water becomes ultra viscous and even below -135degC a solid with no crystal structure called "Glassy Water".
* Water has memory called "water memory" and so it can recognize particles once dissolved.
* Frozen water which means ice is lighter than water, and that is the reason why ice floats in water.(3)

(2) http://www.neatorama.com/2008/08/22/5-really-weird-things-about- water/
(3) http://www.mcmua.com/water/education_funFacts.htm


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Siva Mavuduru's picture

Dear sravani Good one. I have doubt. If the distilled water is not pure why are we using it generally in the labs. why are we not going other filtration techniques? And I have another doubt (from the childhood). in the solids, the partcles will remain close than its corresponding liquid phase. so the density has to increase. but why is not happening? Do you know bits really added flavour to your blog
Sravani kompella's picture

hello Ganesh, Thank you for your compliment.Regarding your questions... 2)Density means mass divided by volume. so when a substance changes from solid to liquid the volume decreases and so the density increases.(because density and volume are inversely proportional) For example ice has more volume than water so ice is less denser than water and so ice floats in water.hope I am clear Regarding the second question who said distilled water is not pure?It is pure and does not have any contaminants as the water is first evaporated and then steam is condensed and hence it is used in labs. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/122Adensityice.html
Siva Mavuduru's picture

but in your blog, you stated tht even the volatile oils get evaporated. so don't they effect the purity of the water?
Sravani kompella's picture

Hai Ganesh, I told Volatile organic components not volatile oils and before water undergoes distillation it is filtered to remove all such components and adsorbents like charcoal are added to remove oils and finally this water is sent for distillation.SO if by chance these volatile components enter during distillation then it may pose a problem.
Siva Mavuduru's picture

in solids the molecules will be held togather and in liquid they are sperated with wide intermolecular spaces. so whenever the solids gets converted to liquids the volume should increase. isn't it?

Among the all purification processes which one is the best method for getting 100%purity?


Asst Professor

Raos college of Pharamcy


Sravani kompella's picture

No one can assure 100% purity but among all Reverse osmosis technique is widely used in all purifiers...Purity is achieved by using a combination of techniques like reverse osmosis.ultraviolet treatment etc...
Shouvik's picture

xxxxxxxxxxtremelyyyyyyyyyyyyyy nyc blog.............................pls explain what happens in chlorination process , does it remove all impurities or not?????????


Sravani kompella's picture

Chlorination will remove only micro organisms but not any other impurities and it is not effective always.....Organisms develop resistance to chlorine and in that case all the microbes cannot be removed... Reference: http://books.google.co.in/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA142&lpg=PA142&dq=mi... dated july 01 2011.
Satyajeeth Pandey's picture

Reverse osmosis, distillation... which one do you think is more preferable?

Satyajit Panda Asst. professor Maharajah's College Of Pharmacy

Sravani kompella's picture

Thank You very much Sir.... Surely Reverse osmosis Sir because water has certain inorganic contaminants which are harmful to us and this technique is the only one which does not allow them to pass through the membrane which is not done through distillation... ACTIVITY:If you take a distilled water and a RO based purifier in two separate containers the container with distilled water will corrode faster.this is because of the inorganic matter and metals..... Reverse Osmosis is used in Purifiers like Kent,Eureka Forbes... Reference: http://www.cyber-nook.com/water/Solutions.html http://www.kent.co.in/product/waterpurifiers_kentelite2.aspx

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