A QUICK REVIEW OF PHARMACOGNOSY II : RESINS

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Hi bloggers.

My quick review on the Pharmacognosy continues and this time I am presenting a blog which gives the quick review on the drugs containing resins. Hope this will be helpful for the students during exams

DRUGS CONTAINING RESINS

JALAP

Obtained from Plant

Ipomoea purga (tubercles)

Also called

Mexican
Jalap

Family

Convolvulaceae

Chemical entities

Jalapin
(ether soluble)

Convolvulin (ether insoluble). Rhamnoconvolvulic acid, tiglic acid and exogonic acid are obtained when convolvulin is hyrolysed.

Starch,gum, volatile oil

Methyl aesculetin, palmitic acid, stearic acid

Uses

Cathartic

CANNABIS

Obtained from Plant

Cannabis sativa (flowering tops.)

Here only female plants are used.

Unfertilized female plants are used for obtaining narcotic substances.

Also called

Marihuana

Family

Moraceae

Identification

0.5g of powder + petroleum ether -> filter

1ml filtrate + 2ml 15%HCl -> two layers are formed. A red color is formed in middle.

Chemical entities

15% resin.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (have psychotrophic actions), cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabichromene and cannabigerol are present in the resin.

Trigonelline and choline

Uses

Sedative, analgesic.

MALE FREN

Obtained from Plant

Dryopteris filix-mas, Dryopteris odontoloma, Dryopteris marginata (rhizomes and frond bases)

Also called

Aspidium

Family

Polypodiaceae

Chemical entities

Filicin, Filicic acid, filicinic acid, aspadinol, albaspidin and flavaspidic acid

Uses

Antihelminthic

Remarks

Substitutes: lady fern (Athurium filix-foemina)

PODOPHYLLUM

Obtained from Plant

Podophyllum hexandrum and Podophyllum emodi rhizomes

Also called

Himalayan may apple

Family

Berberidaceae

Chemical entities

Resin is called podophyllin.

Podophyllotoxin, quercetin, kaempferol, asiragalin

a and B Pelatatins (exclusively present in P.peltatum)

Uses

Veneral warts

Purgative

Used to treat some cancers.

ASAFOETIDA

Obtained from Plant

Ferula foetida, Ferula rubricaulis roots and rhizomes

Also called

Devils dung

Family

Umbelliferae

Identification

drug + sulphuric acid -> Red or reddish brown

drug + 50%nitric
acid -> Green color

Chemical entities

asaresinotannol.

Oil mainly contains secondary butyl propanyl disulphide

C7H14S2 ,C16H20S2
and C10H18S2 (gives odour)

Uses

carminative, nerve stilmulant, flavoring agent.

Remarks

ALLIED DRUG: galbanum

ADULTERANTS: Gum Arabic, colophony, red clay, gypsum, chalk, barley flour, wheat flour.

CAPSICUM

Obtained from Plant

Capsicum annum riped fruits

Also called

Cayenne pepper

Family

Solanaceae

Chemical entities

Capsaicin

Proteins, pigments (capsanthin and carotene)

Viatmins(thiamine and ascorbic acid)

Uses

Carminative

Counter
irritant

MYRRH

Obtained from Plant

Commiphora molmol bark

Also called

Bol

Family

Burseraceae

Chemical entities

Entities soluble in ether : Alpha, beta, gamma commiphoric acids

Entities that are not soluble in ether : alpha and beta heerabomyrrholic acids

Terpenes, cuminic aldehyde and eugenol are present in volatile oil

Enzymes: oxidase

Uses

Antiseptic

Astringent,so ingredient in mouth washes and gargles

Remarks

In the species of Burseraceae vascular tissues contains the oleo resin cannals.

Substituents: Arabian myrrh, yemen myrrh

Indian bdellium in our country

STORAX

Obtained from Plant

Liquidambar orientalis trunk

Family

Hamamelidaceae

Identification

Drug+sand+KMnO4 ->
benzaldehyde smell

Drug + K2 Cr 2 O
7 + H2SO4-> benzaldehyde smell

Chemical entities

Storesin (contains alcohol)

Cinnamic acid, cinnamyl cinnamate, ethyl benzy cinnamate and vanillin.

Uses

Antiseptic

Stimulant

Tobacco can be flavoured

Remarks

Adulterants: rosin

Substituent: Red gum/Sweet gum/American gum (Lquidamabar styraciflua)

BENZOIN

Obtained from Plant

Sumatra benzoin - Styrax paralleloneurus, Styrax benzoin

Siam benzoin - Styrax tonkinensis

Also called

Loban

Family

Leguminosae

Identification

2.5g benzoin + 10ml ether -> 2-3ml extract + Sulphuric acid -> brown (Sumatra benzoin) and people red (Siam benzoin)

Benzoin + potassium permanganarte ->benzaldehyde smell (Sumatra benzoin)

Chemical entities

Benzoin acid, Cinnamic acid

Summaresinolic acid and
siaresinolic acid

Siam benzoin consists of less amount of cinnamic acid than Sumatra benzoin

Uses

Expectorant

Diuretic

Antiseptic

Upper respiratory tract
infections

It will decrease rancidity of
oils

BALSAM OF TOLU

Obtained from Plant

Myroxylon balsamum trunk

Family

Leguminosae

Identification

Drug (alcoholic solution) +
FeCl3 -> green color

Drug + 5m potaasium permanaganate
-> benzaldehyde smell

Chemical entities

Cinnamic acid, benzoic acid,cinnamicin

Benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamate

Toluresinotannol

Vanillin, styrol (minute amounts)

Uses

Expectorant, antiseptic

Flavouring agent

Remarks

Adulterants: exhausted tolu balsam

Fictious balsm = exhausted tolu
balsam + cinnamic acid+ banzoinc acid

Colophony

GINGER

Obtained from Plant

Zingiber officinale rhizomes

Also called

Sunthi

Family

Zingiberaceae

Chemical entities

Starch, fat

Monoterpene, sesquiterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are present in oil.

a zingiberebe,
a farnesene and a curumene

B sesquiphellandrene and B bisabolene

Phenolic ketones are responsible for parmacologocial action

Uses

Motion sickness

Carminative, stimulant

Mouth washes and liquors prepration

Z.officinalae - treating parasitic conditions

TURMERIC

Obtained from Plant

Curcuma longa rhizomes

Also called

Indian saffron, Haldi

Family

Zingeberaceae

Identification

Drug + sulphuric acid -> crimson color

Drug (in water) + boric acid
-> reddish brown color

Drug + acetic anhydride + sulphuric acid -> violet color

Chemical entities

Curcumin

Starch,

a and B pinene and curcumenes

a phellandrene, camphene

Uses

Condiment

Anti-inflammatory

Antiarthritic

Remarks

Substituents: C.amada

Reference:

Pharmacognosy by c.k.kokate, a.p.purohit, s.b.gokhale, 45th edition, nirali prakashan publishers, page no 1.103 to 1.132

"This blog does not contain plagiarized material"

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About the Author

Siva Mavuduru's picture
Author: Siva Mavuduru

Comments

Bhavani Prasad.V's picture

Good work Siva..!! It is a very useful blog, especially for aspirants..!! Go on with such such useful blogs. Good luck.

Regards,

Bhavani Prasad.V

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Thank you dear Good to see my dear aspirant liked it.
Satyajeeth Pandey's picture

Dear Siva This is really a good idea and really helpful for quick review. I expect this will really serve the purpose intended.

Satyajit Panda Asst. professor Maharajah's College Of Pharmacy

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Thank you sir its all your support that making us to perform well
Sandhya Sravya malla's picture

Really informative blog.....good one. m.sandhyasravya
Siva Mavuduru's picture

K Rajakrishna's picture

Hi ganesh, Its a very good snap short of drugs to prepare.
Siva Mavuduru's picture

Thank you raja Good to see you liked it

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