A QUICK REVIEW OF PHARMACOGNOSY : CARBOHYDRAETS

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Hi bloggers...

The basic motto of this blog is to give a quick review on the carbohydrate products present in pharmacognosy. I feel this subject needs to refer number of times to attempt exactly the important points in exams. The other common names along with the source, chemical entities and uses of the drug are important for the any compound that must be remembered exactly. Here with this blog I am trying give a quick reference of the compounds which will be useful during exams.

AGAR

Obtained from Plant

Gelidium amansi, Gracilaria and pteroclaria

Also called

Japanese isinglass, vegetable gelatin

Identification

1) 1.5g agar+H20
-> boil -> jelly formed.

2) Agar + ruthenium red -> see under microscope -> pink
colour is observed.

3)0.2% agar + tannic acid -> no ppt

Chemical entities

Agarose (made of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose) and
agaropectin (contains ester formed between the sulphuric acid and galactose,
uronic acids)

Cellulose.

Uses

Emulsifying agent,

Laxative,

To make bacterial medium

Remarks

In India Hypnea is also used.

TRAGACANTH

Obtained from Plant

Astragulus gummifer

Family

Leguminosae

Identification

1)tragacanth + 10% ferric chloride -> yellow color.

2)tragacanth + NaOH -> yellow.

3)tragacanth + iodine solution
-> green colour

Chemical entities

Tragacanthin (water soluble), bassorin (water insoluble part).

Galactouronic acid, galactopyranose, arabino-rhamnose,
xylopyranose are formed from tragacanth on hydrolysis

Uses

Demulscent, emollient, thickening agent, emulsifying agent.
Mucilage acts as binding agent.

Making of lotions and spermicidal gels it is used

Remarks

Pith and medullary cells get converted into gummy substance

ACACIA

Obtained from Plant

Acacia arabica

Also called

Gum Arabic

Family

Leguminosae

Identification

1)Indian gum in water + leads ubacetate -> gel.

2)acacia sol + ruthenium red -> no pink

3)gum sol + H2O2 + benzidine -> blue
color

Chemical entities

Arabin (salt of Arabic acid with potassium, Calcium and
Magnesium). Arabinose,rhamnose, galactose and glucuronic acid are the
compounds are obtained on hydrolysis. Oxidase and peroxidase are present.

Uses

Demulscent.

Suspending agent. Emulsifying agent.

Binding agent.

Remarks

Substituent: Acacia senegal

Adulterants: gunghati, starch, tragacanth, dextrin, sterculia
gum

STERCULIA GUM

Obtained from Plant

Sterculia urens, Sterculia villosa, Sterculia tragacantha

Also called

Indian tragacanth, karaya gum

Family

Sterculiaceae

Chemical entities

D-galactose, L-rhamnose, d-galacturonic acid, albobiuronic
acid

Uses

Laxative.

Pharmaceutical uses: emulsifier, thickening agent, stabilizer.

Dental uses: Denature adhesive

GUAR GUM

Obtained from Plant

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus endosperm

Also called

Jaguar gum

Family

Leguminosae

Identification

Gum + iodine solution -> no green color

Gum + ruthenium red solution -> no pink color

0.5g gum + 20ml water + 0.5ml H2O2 +
0.5ml benzidine -> blue color not formed

Chemical entities

Guaran (water soluble). Galactose and mannose are obtained when hydrolyzed.

proteins

Uses

Thickening agent, emulsifying agent. Binding and
disintegrating agent.

Bulk laxative, peptic ulcer treatment.

Remarks

Gum is present in endosperm and fibrous matter is present in
the husk.

ISPHAGULA

Obtained from Plant

Plantago ovata seeds

Also called

Indian psyllium

Family

Plantaginaceae

Chemical entities

Pentosan and aldobionic acid, fixed oil & proteins.

Uses

Demulscent, laxative, used in amebic and bacillary desentry.

Product obtained by removing cations is used in the entering
coating and sustained formulations.

Remarks

Substitutes are P.rhodosperma, P.wrightiana, P.asiatica

HONEY

Obtained from Plant

Honey combs of Apis mellifera, Apis dorsata,

Also called

Madhu, Mel

Family

Apidae

Chemical entities

Sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, dextrin

Succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid

Invertase, diastase, inulase

Vitamins, proteins, pollen grains.

Uses

Demulcent

Antiseptic

Used in cough preparations

PECTIN

Obtained from Plant

Lemon peel, orange peel, apple pomace, carrots and sunflower heads.

Whenever the rind of the citrus plants is subjected to acid hydrolysis, we can get pectin.

Identification

1% solution + 2%KOH solution ->transparent gel + HCl ->
gelatinous ppt having no colour

Chemical entities

Protopectin, pectin, pectinic acid, galacturonic acid.

Galactouronic acid, methyl alcohol, glactose or arabinoe are the hydrolysis products of pectin.

Uses

Adsorbent (diarrhea)

Haemostatic

Emulsifying agent

Plasma substitute

Pectin + gelatin ->microencapsulation

References:

Pharmacognosy by c.k.kokate, a.p.purohit, s.b.gokhale, 45th edition, nirali prakashan publishers, page no 7.6 to 7.40

"This blog do not contain any plagiarized material"

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About the Author

Siva Mavuduru's picture
Author: Siva Mavuduru

Comments

Shouvik's picture

can u pls provide the same monograph of inulin.....................ova here..........

$houvik

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Obtained from

Plant

Inula helenium bulbs, Taraxacum officinalae and Saussurea and chicorium roots

Also called

Alant starch

Family

Compositae

Chemical entities

Polysaccharide.

Mainly composed of fructose and furanose which are connected through
1,2 carbons. At the end glucose is present

Uses

Diagnostic agent

Used in the preparation of fructose.

Preparation of diabetic bread.

Siriki Praveen Kumar's picture

well done, good blog for your friends for a quick review...

Regards,

S. Praveen Kumar.

sirikipraveen11@gmail.com

Pharma warriors

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Hi sir Good to know you liked my blog. feeling glad that you said my purpose has been served Thank you so much
Sirisha Pingali's picture

Very well presented. Hoping for such great blogs from you ganesh!

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Hi dear Thank you for your comment. I will try to come up with this kind of blog in the future too. My main motto is to you give quick reference during exams and i feel good if my blogs are useful to friends during exams.
Shouvik's picture

thanx a lot.............

$houvik

Siva Mavuduru's picture

You are most welcome dear

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