WINE FOR ALL OCCASIONS!!!!

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An ideal victory may be getting a gold medal in studies, or holding a world cup just like our men in blue did few days back or winning a F1 race etc. All these have a common task which is none other than the Celebrations!!! Thanks to Cardbury advert for evoking the "Celebrations chocolates" which have been nonpareil gift particularly liked by children (you know - Kuch mitha ho jaaye :)) While there is another corner let me say the CHAMPAGNE MOMENT!! Have you ever wondered, what are these CHAMPAGNES, VERMOUTH, ANGELICA, CALIFORNIA TOKAY, BLACK MUSCAT, SPARKLING BURGANDY etc??? Yeah, they are the various types of WINES . With this starting note let us now see how are wines prepared. Ladies and Gentlemen i think you can try this at home (: (: WHAT ARE WINES??[1] Believe me, it is not pretty easy to define it just like we take it!!! A wine is a product of "normal alcoholic fermentation of juice of sound grapes". However the fruit may not be essentially grapes - Citrus, Bananas, Apples, Pine apples, Strawberries may also be used. STEPS INVOLVED IN WINE MAKING [1] 1. CRUSHING OF GRAPES Selected grapes are crushed to release the juice which we call "Must". During the process, stalks are removed since they offer harsh taste to the must due to the presence of resins. The chief sugars present in must are glucose, fructose. Grape juice has an acidity of 0.60-0.65% and pH of 3-4 due to the presence of malic and tartaric acid. 2. FERMENTATION The grapes themeselves have a natural flora of microorganisms that bring about Fermentation. But, Now a days the must is partially sterilized by use of sulfur dioxide, bisulphate or metabisulphite which removes many microorganisms leaving behind Yeasts. The yeast used in the fermentation process is Saccharomyces cerevisiae var, ellipsoideus . During the fermentation process, Heat is released which raises the temperature of the overall must. If the temperature employed initially is 60oC, the final temperature would be 100oC. At this temperature the fermentation process haults resulting in the formation only 5% alcohol. Hence, cooling coils are employed to maintain the temperature at 24oC. Yeasts preferentially ferment glucose. Nutrients supplied includes both Micro and Macro nutrients. Nitrogenous compounds present are Ammonium sulphate and Ammonium hydrogen Phosphate. The fermentation is anaerobic however initial supply of Oxygen is necessary for the rapid growth of Yeasts. 3. AGEING AND STORAGE After fermentation the wine is transferred to the wooden casks or bottles or tanks. The wood allows only slow access to oxygen. Modern tanks made of stainless steel are made free of air pockets formation by filling the airspace with an inert gas such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. During and ageing, the following changes takes place, 1. Slow oxidation 2. Change in the flavour of the wine 3. Malolactic fermentation. 4. PACKAGING Finally, the wine is bottled and pasteurized. In many countries wines are distributed in casks. Reference: Principles of Fermentation technology By Peter F Stanbury,Allan Whittaker,Stephen J Hall 2nd Edition Elsivier Publication, Page 262-265
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About the Author

Sirisha Pingali's picture
Author: Sirisha Pingali

Comments

Sandhya Sravya malla's picture

good work.very interesting way of presentation. regards pharma warriors
Sirisha Pingali's picture

Sandhya Thank you for the valuable comment.

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

Gangadhar Hari's picture

I have a query sirisha, What is the final alcohol content in wine preparations??
Sirisha Pingali's picture

Thank you for the valuable comment Gangadhar! Well the actual alcohol content depends on the type of wine. Wines are broadly classified into a) Natural Wines- where the alcohol content is 9-14% b) Fortified (Dessert and appetizer) wines - They contain around 15-21% of alcohol. Reference: Principles of Fermentation technology By Peter F Stanbury,Allan Whittaker,Stephen J Hall 2nd Edition Elsivier Publication, Page no 266

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

Bhavani Prasad.V's picture

Nicely portrayed your knowledge on wines, Sirisha. Well, can you clarify me with this - What is the difference between Red wine and White wine? Why Red wine is mostly advised to take at dinner and White wine during Lunch?

Regards,

Bhavani Prasad.V

Sirisha Pingali's picture

Dear Bhavani Prasad, thank you for the valuable comment. Well, the key difference between white and red wine is that the latter employs fermentation of the juice, skins and seeds of red grapes. The colour is particularly attributed to the skin containing anthocyanins and pigmented tannins. The white wines are fermented at lower temperatures while the red ones are fermented at a temperature of 28-30oC. Whatever might be the type of wine, its the whole wine making process that plays an important role in determining the final product.[1] Coming to the taking of the wines, I didnt find any relevant answer to your question but i think red wine is preferrably taken post dinner to avoid coronary diseases which are commonly occuring during night times. It is due to the presence of principle compounds resveratrol and quercetin.[2] However you can find the red wines on the lunch tables too. Another study shows White wine has got good effect on Lungs. This study was conducted on Buffaloes.[3] These are my possible perception but i heartily welcome the correct answer by you or anyother readers!! Ref:1. http://www.wineaustralia.com/australia/Default.aspx?tabid=842 accessed on May 4th 2011. 2. http://www.winepros.org/wine101/wine-health.htm accessed on May4th 2011. 3. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/05/020521072618.htm accessed on May4th 2011.

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

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