An ideal victory may be getting a gold medal in studies, or holding a world cup just like our men in blue did few days back or winning a F1 race etc. All these have a common task which is none other than the Celebrations!!! Thanks to Cardbury advert for evoking the "Celebrations chocolates" which have been nonpareil gift particularly liked by children (you know - Kuch mitha ho jaaye :)) While there is another corner let me say the CHAMPAGNE MOMENT!! Have you ever wondered, what are these CHAMPAGNES, VERMOUTH, ANGELICA, CALIFORNIA TOKAY, BLACK MUSCAT, SPARKLING BURGANDY etc??? Yeah, they are the various types of WINES . With this starting note let us now see how are wines prepared. Ladies and Gentlemen i think you can try this at home (: (: WHAT ARE WINES?? Believe me, it is not pretty easy to define it just like we take it!!! A wine is a product of "normal alcoholic fermentation of juice of sound grapes". However the fruit may not be essentially grapes - Citrus, Bananas, Apples, Pine apples, Strawberries may also be used. STEPS INVOLVED IN WINE MAKING  1.
CRUSHING OF GRAPES
Selected grapes are crushed to release the juice which we call "Must". During the process, stalks are removed since they offer harsh taste to the must due to the presence of resins. The chief sugars present in must are glucose, fructose. Grape juice has an acidity of 0.60-0.65% and pH of 3-4 due to the presence of malic and tartaric acid.
The grapes themeselves have a natural flora of microorganisms that bring about Fermentation. But, Now a days the must is partially sterilized by use of sulfur dioxide, bisulphate or metabisulphite which removes many microorganisms leaving behind Yeasts. The yeast used in the fermentation process is Saccharomyces cerevisiae var, ellipsoideus .
During the fermentation process, Heat is released which raises the temperature of the overall must. If the temperature employed initially is 60oC, the final temperature would be 100oC. At this temperature the fermentation process haults resulting in the formation only 5% alcohol. Hence, cooling coils are employed to maintain the temperature at 24oC.
Yeasts preferentially ferment glucose. Nutrients supplied includes both Micro and Macro nutrients. Nitrogenous compounds present are Ammonium sulphate and Ammonium hydrogen Phosphate.
The fermentation is anaerobic however initial supply of Oxygen is necessary for the rapid growth of Yeasts.
3. AGEING AND STORAGE
After fermentation the wine is transferred to the wooden casks or bottles or tanks. The wood allows only slow access to oxygen. Modern tanks made of stainless steel are made free of air pockets formation by filling the airspace with an inert gas such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
During and ageing, the following changes takes place,
1. Slow oxidation
2. Change in the flavour of the wine
3. Malolactic fermentation.
Finally, the wine is bottled and pasteurized. In many countries wines are distributed in casks.
Reference: Principles of Fermentation technology By Peter F Stanbury,Allan Whittaker,Stephen J Hall
2nd Edition Elsivier Publication, Page 262-265