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1.Andrographis paniculata is a well known medicinal plant of the Ayurveda. It is being used as a bitter tonic and febrifuge
2.A diterpene, named as Andrographolide is an active constituent and standardisation of Andrographis paniculata is based upon the content of Andrographolide.
The standardised extract contains about 10% of the diterpene Andrographoilde . Andrographis 3.paniculata is traditionally called as" kalmegh" . The plant belongs to the family Acanthaceae and is widely used in the Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicine.
4.The plant grows in the waste lands and prefers mostly the moist habitat. This herb is bitter in taste and has a weak odour.This plant is official in Indian pharmacopoeia.
Common Names (1)
Bhunimba , Mahatikta ,King of Bitters, Kiryato ,Kirat , Mahatita , Kalmegh
Botany of the plant: (1)
The herb of Andrographis paniculata is an erect, annual and it may sometimes be
assumed as the height of shrub also. The flowers of this plant are insignificant
and of dirty pink color .In Ayurveda the drug has been described as an
antipyretic and hepatoprotective.
Chemistry of the drug (1)
Chemically this drug contains flavones and lactones. Among the lactones Andrographolide is a main constituent and it is an active principle of the plant.Andrographolide is isolated in its pure
form and it has shown various pharmacological activities. The herb alsocontains some minerals and is a rich source of common salt NaCl. Andrographis paniculata is standardized to contain 10% of the diterpene Andrographolide.The content of this active constituent of the herb is determined by eithe gravimetric method or by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Pharmacology of the drug:
1. Hepatoprotective activity
1.The activities of antioxidant enzymes like, catalase , glutathione peroxidise and superoxide dismutase were decreased following BHC
effect. Administration of AP showed many protective effects in activity of superoxide dismutase , glutathione peroxidise, catalase ,glutathione reductase as well as the level of glutathione. The activity of the lipid peroxidase was also reduced. The result indicates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of A. paniculata .
2.The paracetamol induced decrease in the volume and the content of the bile was prevented by andrographolide pretreatment. It was found to be more potent than that of silymarin , which is clinically used as a hepatoprotective agent .(1)
2. Hypoglycemic activity
A water extract of AndrographisPaniculata of about (10
mg/kg) body weight can prevent the induction of hyperglycaemia which is induced by an oral administration of glucose( 2 mg/kg) body weight.(1)
3 . Anti -fertility activity
1.Anti-fertility effect of this Andrographis Paniculata(AP) was observed in the mice under various experimental conditions.
sun-dried powder of AP was mixed with animal's food i.e.., (Rats Pelletts ) in dose of 2G / Kg. B.W. / day and allowed to consume by female mice daily for six weeks, none of the animal (100%) were pregnant when mated with male rat of proven fertility who din't receive the drug. (1)
4 . Cardiovascular activity (4)
1.To observe the effects of Andrographis Paniculata component on N2O, endothelin ,cyclic guanosine monophosphate , superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide and in the experimental atherosclerotic rabbit model was established by feeding the high cholesterol diet which is supplemented by bovine serum albumin injection.
2.The rabbits are randomly divided into the control, model, and andrographis paniculata treated the group. Blood samples were collected before 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the same treatment. Before and after 8 weeks of andrographis paniculata administration, compared with that of the model group, the N2O, cyclic guanosine monophosphate and activity of superoxide dismutase was increased, while the lipid peroxide and endothelin were decreased .then it was concluded that andrographis paniculata has the effects of antioxidation process, preserving the endothelial function, and maintaining balance of N2O/ endothelin .
5. Psycho- pharmacological activities
1. Psychopharmacological study was conducted on the extract of Andrographis paniculata herbs. The extract exhibited a very significant alteration in the behavioural pattern and a reduction in the spontaneous motility.
2.The extract also produced a extended action of pentobarbitone -induced sleeping time and reduced the body temperature in various experimental animal models .(1)
6. Anti -HIV activity
A phase I dose-escalating the clinical trial of a substance andrographolide from the herb Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV+ patients and 5 HIV uninfected i..e..,, healthy volunteers.
The objectives were initially to assess the safety and tolerability and secondarilyin order to assess the effects on the plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 (+) lymphocyte levels. No subjects are used antiretroviral medications during this trial. Those that of with liver or renal abnormalities were
excluded in this regard. The planned regimen is 5-mg/kg bodyweight for about 3 weeks, going up to 10-mg/kg bodyweight for about 3 weeks and upto 20-mg/kg bodyweight for the final 3 weeks. This trial was interrupted at 6 weeks due to the adverse events including an anaphylactic reaction in 1 patient. All the adverse events had resolved by end of this observation. A significant rise mean CD4 (+) lymphocyte level of the HIV
subjects occurred after the administration of 10 mg/kg andrographolide . Andrographolide
may inhibit the HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation , leading to rise in the CD4 (+) lymphocyte levels in the HIV-1 infected individuals.(2)
7.Anti-tumor activity: In vitro studies of andrographolide indicated that an immuno-stimulating activity along with a marked inhibitory effect. Its presenceelevates the proliferation of lymphocytes and the production of interleukin(ii), TNF-alpha production and cytotoxic activity of the lymphocytes against some of the cancer cell lines, as well as the demonstrating potential direct anti-cancer activity by an induction of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27 and reduced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase.(3)
It acts as a remedy For(4)
Digestive action: it Promotes digestion process
Hepatoprotective action: it Protects the liver and gall bladder.
Vermicidal action: it Kills the intestinal worms & supports the intestine
Anti-acne action: It Protect skin from pimples
Analgesic action: It is a Pain killer
Anti-inflammatory action: It Reduces the swelling exudation from capillaries
Antibacterial action:It Fights against the bacterial infections like diarrhoea.
Expectorant action:It Promotes mucus discharge from the respiratory system.
Hypoglycemic action: it Blood sugar reducer.
Laxative action: It Aids in the bowel elimination.
(accessed on 24-9-11,9:10p.m)
2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrographis_paniculata(accessed on 24-9-11,9:10p.m)
(accessed on 24-9-11,9:10p.m)
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