AN INTRODUCTION TO PLAGIARISM

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Hello dear bloggers, Its time to present the first blog to you as a leader on behalf of PHARMAPHILICS. It is commonly known as PIRACY in entertainment field. If it comes to profession it is known as PLAGIARISM. What is Plagiarism? A simple meaning of plagiarism is giving your name to someone's idea or work. It is the larceny of other's intellectual rights[1]. It is common in any field. If the work comes to our desk at an easy rate with less expenditure of time, money and stress why do people leave the opportunity? Similarly when we teachers assign students a project or an abstract that should be submitted quickly, who cares to do a loyal job? Infact they blame us for giving it in extreme time. In the recent times, this has created a havoc. Measures are being taken to curb PLAGIARISM. Let me share my views on how to avoid plagiarism. 1. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT In a bulk manufacturing unit, synthesis of a compound may be either single step or multistep process (> 4 steps). For example, if it takes 7 steps to complete process, we aim to finish up with fewer steps say 2 or 3. In such situations we come across a CRITICAL STEP. This is the crucial step for the particular synthesis. So in order to avoid plagiarism the manufacturer assigns a CODE to this step so that it is not leaked by the other users. This is a good solution but not the best. It carries the following limitations: -->Everytime, the user alone is involved in the mission. Rest of the proles enjoys his presence and regrets for his absence. (Common in college lab practicals. Is it right my friends??) -->Today technology is very developed that misuse exists everywhere. So, serious care should be taken else problems are inevitable. 2. Let us deal with the second approach. It is what we call PATENT PROTECTION. Years ago, there was conflict between Pfizer and Dr.Reddy's laboratories as to AMLODIPINE in United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuits. Pfizer company filed patent grant for its product AMLODIPINE BESYLATE. Before filing, the company produced two salts of amlodipine- a besylate and maleate form. But, Pfizer chose besylate form due to its convinience. Later Dr.Reddys filed for a grant of their product AMLODIPINE MALEATE. Pfizer then filed a case against Dr Reddys seeking that the active ingredient in both the cases is same viz.AMLODIPINE and it can be administered by any salt form. So, Pfizer claims that patent should be granted only to AMLODIPINE BESYLATE. The original story can be seen here : http://www.ll.georgetown.edu/federal/judicial/fed/opinions/03opinions/03... Let me tell you the reason for giving small insight of the case. It is only due to loopholes in the patent laws. Stringent laws must be amended to avoid this problem of confusion. So patent protection also has some limitations but these can be cleared. 3. Since we live in a democratic country like India, the superior authority is the GOVERNMENT. Enforcement of strict laws, rules and regulations may avoid PLAGIARISM to a better extent. The culprit must be punished if he violates the laws. 4. While browsing, students come across many references which may not be possible everytime to report. In that case, we can opt for INTEXT REFERENCING or HARVARD CITATION. Reference: 1. http://www.wordwebonline.com/search.pl?w=plagiarism accessed on december 31st 2010
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Satyajeeth Pandey's picture

VERY VALUABLE AND INFORMATIVE REGARDS

Satyajit Panda Asst. professor Maharajah's College Of Pharmacy

Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Thank you satyajit.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Sandhya Sravya malla's picture

you have come up with great info sir.....very valuable and informative..regarding the process development,you have cited about the crucial step,but until the crucial step arises,the start of the process up to the crucial step may be prone to plagiarism????Is this the only reason for which you have said this is not THE BEST SIR????? REGARDS
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

sravya, thank you. Even if the initial reactions are plagiarized that does not pose any problem. Because the starting material for a particular synthesis remains the same. The reason why i said this is not the best solution because the code is confined to a single person ie.,it remains confidential.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

criticone's picture

Thats a great blog .. Could you please explain 5 common mistakes people do (with respect to plagiarism) and how to avoid them?
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Hello CriticONE Common mistakes which i tend to give are the following: 1. Direct COPY & PASTE From the source - this can be avoided by proper understanding of the concept and expressing the views in their style. 2. In scientific works (review & research articles) people often fail to quote appropriate references. This can be avoided by taking extra care while citing the references. 3. In lab works - we find students copying the experiments from the senior records. I don't say it is completely wrong because principle and procedure remains the same. But students tend to copy the results, too. - This can be avoided by making them repeat the experiment until they achieve the proper result. 4. In our daily life we often see people illegally copying audio tracks from copy right protected cds into mp3 disc and marketing them. - This is burning issue which still needs a permanent solution. 5. People merely give importance to the source and its author from which they have taken the information.- This can be avoided by creating awareness and educating them about the substantial effects of plagiarism.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

criticone's picture

Do you think you need to give citation for following sentences "What is Plagiarism? A simple meaning of plagiarism is giving your name to someone's idea or work. It is the larceny of other's intellectual rights. It is common in any field. " Though thats your own words...is it necessary to acknowledge the source where you obtained this knowledge ? If you agree, please EDIT your blog and provide references . If you disagree please share your thoughts..
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Hello CriticONE, Glad to see your comment again. Thank you. We've done required corrections.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Hi Sir Good blog Sir I have a doubt What should we do for side headings? I mean if I keep a blog on emulsions, can i keep PIT as it is or should I keep in inverted commas("PIT")? First of all I feel proper awareness must be created before punishing. Because some of the students are not aware of plagiarism. Even I am not aware until I stepped on to this particular platform.
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Siva ganesh, Your views on plagiarism is right. Coming to your query, for all established scientific works and universal facts you need not put quotation marks. Simple example is 'g' - acceleration due to gravity. or e=mc2. You can represent these facts without quotations directly. I hope this explanation is clear.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Krunal Ukani's picture

Hi, sir ,its a great informative blog , Thanks 4 such a beautiful information.... regard...
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Thank you krunal.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Sana Bangliwala's picture

Dear sir, your blog gives such a simple & pin pointed information on plagiarism... Thank u for such a beautiful information... Reagards...

Sana Bangliwala, THe Ayurpreachers.

Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Thank you sana.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Siriki Praveen Kumar's picture

Sir Excellent blog Can you explain the term Harvard citation?

Regards,

S. Praveen Kumar.

sirikipraveen11@gmail.com

Pharma warriors

Dr Girija Sankar's picture

hello praveen, Harvard citation is more detailed type of referencing. For eg If you got some information from a biotechnology book you quote in the following manner. (Essential Microbiology by Stuart Hogg 2005 edition page no :855-856)

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Sanket Shah's picture

excellent blog sir... thanks for giving such a nice blog... regards Sanket Shah
Sirisha Pingali's picture

Thank you for your wishes.

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

Swagat K. Soni's picture

Sir, its a very nice blog to understand about plagiarism.. Thanks 4 such an interesting information..

Swagat K. Soni Anand Pharmacy college M.Pharm (Pharmacology)

Sirisha Pingali's picture

Thank you swagat.

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

SS Md Shafi's picture

Dear sir good example is given by you.... What may be the convinience of Pfizer for selecting only that besylate form... sir ??

shafi ..

Sirisha Pingali's picture

thank you. The besylate form is selected due to the company's ease of manufacturing. Sorry for inconvnience.

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

K Rajakrishna's picture

dear sir u have given a good example and a simple presentation on this topic, can u provide some more methods to prevent accidental plagiarism?
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

hello raja We can type the query in google where you can see a series of results. One best example is http://www.ehow.com/how_4618899_avoid-accidental-plagiarism-articles.html accessed on december 31st 2010. But i think self awareness, cross-checking thoroughly are the best methods to avoid accidental plagiarism. Do you agree with me?

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

K Rajakrishna's picture

thank you very much sir, for addressing my queries!. i am satisfied with your reply!. i have another question for you. is paraphrasing apart of plagiarism or not?.
Francine's picture

Thank you for your explanation on this topic Blessing and Prayers
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

thank you very much!

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Dr. T.E.G.K. Murthy's picture

Does the second approach PATENT protection comes under plagiarism or merely just a co-incidence? Different industries will try to develop their own formulations to match with innovator products with different materials and techniques. Unfortunately, either the technique or the material used by the industries may be the same by chance. Then how it will come under plagiarism? Similarly, two research scholars of different universities/institutions may unknowingly perform their research work on same concept which may be identified only during publication of their work. Then can you consider it as plagiarism?

Dr.T.E.G.K.Murthy
http://www.pharmainfo.net/tegkmurthy/biography
Principal
Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla

Prof. J. Vijaya Ratna's picture

Dear Girija Shankar It is a very good blog. I think the best way to counter plagiarism is to start writing in your own words. When we want to express what is written in someone's book or paper- we must read it, understand it and then write it in our own words. Then we must give credit to the author by giving the reference. Regarding the patent process ,I want to add a little. A new salt of a patented molecule is patentable in USA. But it is not so in India. In India Section 3 (d) of the Patent Act 1970 (amended), prevents patenting of "mere improvements" and thus counters evergreening. But is USA evergreening is permitted. I have written a blog on this in 2009. All the best to you and to your team. Vijaya Ratna

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