INSULIN PREPARATIONS!!!

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Insulin preparations: First of all let me give you a mild introduction. Insulin was first discovered by Banting and Best in 1921. From then on, the porcine and bovine pancreas served as a major sources of the hormone. Insulin is secreted by Beta cells of pancreas as Proinsulin initially where it is digested to release the hormone of interest. It is comprised of 51 Amino acids and consists of two chains interlinked by disulphide bond. Chain A is composed of 21 AA while Chain B is composed of 30 AA. The interlinking disulphide bond occurs at A7 and B7 & between A and B19. Various formulations of Insulin are developed taking the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic aspects under consideration. Here are few preparations I listed out: REGULAR AND RAPID SOLUBLE PREPARATIONS: Initially, Insulin is prepared under acidic conditions but this process led to an unstable product with loss of potency. Then efforts are made to improvise the product to best serve people. The chemical stability is enhanced by preparing under neutral conditions as Zinc stabilized solutions. INTERMEDIATE ACTING INSULIN PREPARATIONS: The intermediate acting insulin preparations are: NPH and Lente. These preparations show their effects by achieving the "dissolution of precipitated/crystalline form of insulin". NPH is Neutral Pratamine Hagedorn named after the inventor HC Hagedorn. THE DISSOLUTION PROCESS IS THE RATE LIMITING STEP FOR THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF INTERMEDIATE ACTING AND LONG ACTING INSULIN. LONG ACTING INSULIN PREPARATIONS: Ultralente and Lantus(r) are the Long acting Insuling preparations. The former was introduced in 1950s while the latter is new analog and is commercially available. These preparations are characterized by "slow and relatively constant release of insulin solid" via subcutaneous tissue. The rate of absorption into bloodstream is relatively low in Long acting Insulin Preparations. Reference: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - An Introduction for Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Scientists, Edited by Daan J A Crommelin and Robert D Sindelar, 2nd Edition, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, Page No: 231- 237 THIS BLOG IS FREE OF PLAGIARISM.
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Siva Mavuduru's picture

sir is there any formulation in which we can administer the insulin orally? can we use pancreas after the death of the human to extract insulin? so that we can produce more insulin which is more compatible with our body
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

Hello siva Administration of insulin orally has got some serious limitations, as it is a polypeptide so that it can be proteolysed by the proteolytic enzymes present in the stomach. Hence forth we opted for the other routes mainly SC. The best articles given below may help you. http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2011/07/11/generex-advances-oral-... accessed on July 13th 2011. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-14/india-business/28... accessed on July 13th 2011. The latter half is a good question by you!! Infact you can transplant the islets of Pancreas from one person. Firstly, the pancreatic islets are collected, processed, purified and then transplanted. But this is a tedious process and moreover everyone show interest in the readily available drugs than waiting for a person to die! Ref: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/pancreaticislet/ accessed on july 13th 2011.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Siriki Praveen Kumar's picture

simple and clear blog sir,,,... Are there any special techniques especially employed for improving the dissolution rate of insulin.?

Regards,

S. Praveen Kumar.

sirikipraveen11@gmail.com

Pharma warriors

Dr Girija Sankar's picture

hello praveen, Insulin has got no limitations in its dissolution. We are intentionally lowering its dissolution in order to increase its duration of action. That is the funda in preparing Long and Intermediate acting Insulin preparations.

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

K Rajakrishna's picture

hello sir, is is very well guided timeline information, can you tell me which one is having better utility insulin extracted from animals or that derived from microorganisms!....
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

hello raja, We can extract insulin from animals and "genetically modified microorganisms!!". While the latter method proved to be successful because of the highly purified product we obtain and less immunogenicity!

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

Siva Mavuduru's picture

sir thanks for the explanation and providing the info of worthy websites
Dr Girija Sankar's picture

You're welcome ganesh!

Dr.G.Girija Sankar, Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Andhra University.

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