Capsule Filling Machines

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Capsule Filling Machine

Capsule Filling Machine is the mechanical device that fills the powders (active ingredients and the mixtures of active ingredients with combinations of different excipients) into hard or soft gelatin capsules .

Capsule filling machines are used commonly in industrial and pharmaceutical purpose. Millions of capsules can be filled by using different varieties of capsule filling machines which are provided by different manufacturer companies.

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Manufacturers ( Lilly Capsule Filling Machine , Lilly Rotofill , Farmatic, Hofligar, Macofar, G36 , G37 , G38, Osaka , Zanasi, Perry ) Classification ( Hand Operated , Semi-automatic , Automatic ) , Mechanism, Advantages

What is the definition of capsule filling machines?

Capsules are prepared by filling the powder or formulation containing active ingredients and the mixtures of active ingredients with combinations of different excipients by the usage of different capsule filling machines. To form a capsule, the powder or formulation containing active ingredients and the mixtures of active ingredients with combinations of different excipient materials are filled with the help of filling rings into the body of the capsule from the powder hopper and then close the body of the capsule with the cap by the help of second filling ring.

What are the manufacturing companies of capsule filling machines?

At present about nine manufacturing companies supplies the capsule filling machines with different models and types. The following famous companies which provides capsule filling machines are

  1. Eli Lilly and company, Indianapolis, IN
  2. Farmatic SNC, Bologna, Italy
  3. Hofliger and Karg, Waiblingen, Germany
  4. Macofar SAS, Bologna, Italy
  5. mG2 S.P.A., Bologna, Italy
  6. Osaka, Osaka, Japan
  7. Parke-Davis and company, Detroit, MI
  8. Perry Industries, Green Bay, WI
  9. Zanasi Nigris, S.P.A., Bologna, Italy

The largest number of total machines are supplied by Lilly and Parke-Davis. The method of operation and the description of the machines are similar in these two companies.

What are the types or classification of capsule filling machines?

  • Manual (Hand held) Capsule Filling Machine
  • Semi Automatic Capsule Filling Machine
  • Automatic Capsule Filling Machine

The nine famous companies which provides capsule filling machines of different models and types are as follows:

Lilly and Parke-Davis: Lilly capsule filling machine, Lilly ROTOFIL capsule filling machine.

Farmatic: Farmatic Model 2000/15, 2000/30 and 2000/60 capsule filling machine.

Hofliger and Karg: Hofliger and Karg model GKF-303, GKF-602, GKF-1500 and GKF-2500 capsule filling machine.

Macofar: MT-12, MT-13/1 and MT-13/2 capsule filling machine.

mG2: Model G36/4, G36/2, G36, G37N and G38 capsule filling machine.

Osaka: Osaka Model 180 capsule filling machine.

Perry: Perry Model CF ACCOFIL capsule filling machine.

Zanasi: Zanasi Model LZ-64 and AZ-20 capsule filling machine.

What is the common working principle of all capsule filling machines?

Common working principal of capsule filling machine

How the individual models of capsule filling machines are explained?

HAND OPERATED CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE

It consist of a bed having 200-300 hole, a loading tray having 200-300 holes, a powder tray, a pin plate having 200-300 pins, a sealing plate having a rubber top, a lever, a cam handle. The empty capsules are filled in the loading tray and it is palced over the bed. The cam handle is operated to separate the capsule caps from their bodies.Hand operated capsule filling machine

The powder tray is placed in a proper position and filled with an accurate quantity of powder with scraper. The excess of the powder is collected on the platform of the powder tray. The pin plate is lowered and the filled powder is pressed by moving the pin downwards.

After pressing the pin plate is raised and the remaining powder is filled into the bodies of the capsules. The powdered tray is removed after its complete filling. The cap holding tray is again placed in position. The plate with the rubber top is lowered and the lever is operated to lock the caps and bodies. The loading tray is then removed and filled capsules are collected.

With a 200 hole machine, about 5000 capsules can be filled in one hour, whereas in a machine having 300 holes, about 7500 capsules can be filled in one hour.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE

Operation is simple. Meet the hygiene requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Contact parts Stainless steel construction and use of non-corrosive approved materials eliminates contamination and facilitates easy cleaning.

Suitable for filling powder and granular materials in pharmaceutical and health food industries. Simple design and robust construction ensure long life and trouble free operation.

Procedure

  • Take the cap sheet. Place it on a clean, dry surface.
  • Place the encapsulation sheet on top of the cap sheet using the black pegs to fix it correctly in place.
  • Pour capsule tops into the encapsulation sheet and, using a circular motion; gently shake the tops into the holes. While doing this, cover the gap in the wall of the encapsulation sheet with one hand to avoid spilling the tops.
  • When the holes are filled pour out the excess tops.
  • Remove the encapsulation sheet and put the filled cap sheet to one side.
  • Now take the bottom sheet. Fix the encapsulation sheet to the bottom sheet, using the black pegs to fix it correctly in place.
  • Pour bottoms into the encapsulation sheet and shake as before to fill the holes. Pour off excess bottoms.
  • Remove the filled encapsulation sheet and put it carefully to one side.
  • Pour a soop of powder filler onto the bottom sheet and use the spreader to fill the bottoms. Remove the spreader and put it to one side.
  • Take the filled cap sheet and place the middle sheet on top using the black pegs to fit it correctly in place.
  • Turn the cap sheet / middle sheet over and fix to the bottom sheet. Using hands and equal pressure, press down once to fit both parts of the capsule together.

AUTOMATIC CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE

Automatic Capsule Filling Machine has been designed and developed to fill hard gelatin capsules with powder or pellets. It is an extremely durable and reliable machine that fills dosages to the highest accuracy. It can be applicable to the widest range of capsules at all sizes and to all manufacturers and guarantee the integrity of all capsules.

  • The housing and surface are covered with stainless steel 304. All contact parts of medical powders are made from a corrosion resistant stainless steel 316.
  • Parts are made by CNC computer machine. All parts are standardized and easy to substitute.
  • Capable of filling 6 capsules at a time with operation from 10 stations. Accurate operation for orientation, opening, filling, joining and ejecting of the capsules
  • Compulsory spiral feeding in the powder hopper to ensure powder feeding and filling.
  • Dual capsule-opening design to ensure all capsules are opened.
  • Electrical impact protection device to prevent any further damage. The machine will stop automatically in the event of collision.
  • Safety Sensing System to shut the machine down automatically in the event of problems when no capsules, no powder, door is opened, and abnormal load for the machine are detected.
  • Automatic vacuum removal of the air in the dosing tube to give more accurate weitht of the filled capsules.
  • Exclusive dosing tube system, temperature of the powder will not rise during the filling process.
  • Adjustable compression piston in dosing trube to adjust the powder volume without change parts.
  • Easy to chan

    ge the molds without alignment. A person without experience can change the molds within 30 minutes.

Automatic capsule filling machine

LILLY AND PARKE-DAVIS:

It includes Lilly capsule filling machine and Lilly ROTOFIL capsule filling machine.

LILLY CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

It is a semiautomatic machine.

  • In this the empty capsules are fed from the storage hopper (1) and through rectifying unit (2), into the two piece filling ring (3A & 3B).
  • As the ring (3A & 3B) is rotated, a vaccum is applied on the outerside. This vaccum seats the bodies into the lower half of the ring, while the caps retained in the upper portion.
  • The two pieces of the ring are separated , and the cap containing portion is placed aside. The body containing portion of the ring is placed on a variable speed turnable and is rotated mechanically rotated under the powder hopper (4), which contains an auger for the forced delivery of the powder.
  • After one complete rotation the powder hopper is removed, and the two segments of the ring are rejoined.
  • The intact ring is positioned in front of the peg ring (5) and the closing plate is pivoted to 180 degrees.
  • Pneumatic pressure is applied to the peg ring, which forces the capsules body into the cap and the closing plate (6).
  • Ejection of the capsules are collected through a chute (7).

In this equipment the powder is filled to the upper surface of the body containing ring and the fill is therefore primarily volumetric.

LILLY ROTOFIL CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

It is a continuous motion machine. This machine is specifically designed to fill pellets.

  • The machine uses a rotary rectification system, which orients the capsules into a turret. After the capsules are seated the blocks containing the caps are retracted and the bodies are gravity filled from the recirculating bed of pellets.
  • The excess pellets are rolled from the surface of the turret and are transported back to the hopper by vaccum. The cap blocks are realigned over the turret and a simple continuous cam motion provides the closing action.
  • Filled capsules are ejected by compressed air and both cap and body cavities are cleaned by compressed air and vaccum.

  1. Lilly capsule filling machine b) Lilly ROTOFIL capsule filling machine

FARMATIC:

It includes three models that are Farmatic Model 2000/15, 2000/30 and 2000/60 capsule filling machine.

FARMATIC 2000/60 CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

It is a continuous motion filling machine.

Farmatic 90 automatic capsule filling machine

  • It contains dosator type powder feeding units and are totally enclosed for dust and noise control.
  • Adjustable vaccum is used for separating the capsules after rectification and any defective or unopened capsules are automatically rejected.
  • Powder is moved from the product hopper by a screw conveyor.
  • Dosators measure and deliver the powder as a slug to the capsules.
  • The powder slug is ejected into the capsule body, after which the capsule is closed.

HOFLIGER AND KARG:

It includes basically of four machines that are Hofliger and Karg model GKF-303, GKF-602, GKF-1500 and GKF-2500 capsule filling machine.

HOFLIGER AND KARG MODEL GKF-303, GKF-602, GKF-1500 AND GKF-2500 CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

HOFLIGER AND KARG MODEL Capsule Filler All models can be modified to accept powders, pellets and tablets.

In addition the first three models may be equipped to handle the filling of thixotropic liquids into hard gelatin capsules.

Labels involved in H & K model 602 filling machines:

  1. Empty capsule storage hopper
  2. Rectifier
  3. Bulk powder storage hopper
  4. Capsule body transport segment

  5. Closing station
  6. Filled capsules ejection station

Hofliger and Karg model capsule filling machine a) GKF-602 b) GKF-1200/1500 c) GKF-2500

MACOFAR:

It includes three models that are MT-12, MT-13/1 and MT-13/2 capsule filling machine.

MACOFAR MT-12 CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE

These models are low to medium capacity machines.

  • The empty capsules are rectified into the bushings in a central plate. Separation of the cap from the body is separated by the vaccum.
  • The dosator units pick up the powder to a body of the capsule from the hopper.
  • The powder is lightly tamped within the dosators and the powder is ejected into the open bodies and closing of the cap occurs.
  • Ejection of the filling capsule takes place.

Macofar MT-12 capsule filling machine

MG2:

It includes five Models that are G36/4, G36/2, G36, G37N and G38 capsule filling machine.

These models all are continuous motion filling machines.

G36 CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

  • The capsules are fed from the storage hopper through individual tubes and rectifiers (1) into the individual two piece side holders on the continuous chain.
  • The capsules are separated by applying the vaccum to the lower portion which pulls the body into it and cap is retained in the upper holder.
  • The cap containing upper holder (2) is moved aside.
  • The powder is continuously mixed within the powder hopper (5) and it is discharged.
  • The body carrying units now are carried under a series of 12 volumetric dosing nozzles (4) each of which picks up the product from a rotating container, first compressing and ejecting the powder into the capsule bodies.
  • The cap container is repositioned over the body block (6) and closing is done by upper and lower closing pins.
  • Ejection is done by compressed air.

G37N CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

  • It composed of two units.
  • First unit provides capsule feeding, rectifying and opening in a manner similar to that of the G36 but with a greater number of elements
  • The second unit provides capsule separation, dosage, closure and ejection.

G38 CAPSULE FILLING MACHINE:

  • It is newly introduced machine that is slightly slower than G37.
  • Several features have been added to allow machine jogging, powder level control and photo electric shutoff. As well as automatic ejection of certain other empty capsule defects.

mG2 capsule filling machine a) G36 b) G37N c) G38

OSAKA:

It incudes Osaka Model 180 capsule filling machine.

It is continuous motion filling machine.

The powder filling principle utilized is unique in that vibration is used to move the powder from the powder hopper to powder shoes and from the powder shoes into the capsule bodies.

Capsule bodies pass under the powder filling area in two rows, each row is fed by two vibratory units. Because of this method of powder feed, correct powder formulations are essential and limitations exit in the possible amounts with which to fill with the given size capsule.

Osaka Model 180 capsule filling machine

PERRY:

It includes Perry Model CF ACCOFIL capsule filling machine.

It is continuous motion filling machine.

The powder is supplied from the bulk supply hopper to a powder pan.

In the rotating powder turret, 24 vertically operating, cam controlled empty needles are immersed into the powder and the vaccum is applied to suck the powder up into the needles.

The filling chain links are properly realigned and body is moved into the cap by the slow cam action of the 24 closing pins followed by closing and ejection of capsule by the air from the conveyers.

Perry model CF ACCOFIL capsule filling machine

ZANASI:

It incudes the models of Zanasi Model LZ-64, AZ-20 and Z-5000 capsule filling machine

ZANASI MODEL LZ-64, AZ-20:

This two series are continuous motion machines.

It includes the dosator principle.

ZANASI Z-5000:

These are capable of filling powders, granules and tablets.

Special attention has been made to safety devices and acoustical treatments for operator protection.

Zanasi Model capsule filling machine a) LZ-64 b) AZ-20 c) Z-5000

What are the advantages of capsule filling machine?

Lilly and Parke-Davis:

Lilly capsule filling machine fills 2,00,000 capsules daily.

Pelletized or granular materials can be filled by using the equipment.

Lilly ROTOFIL capsule filling machine fills 1200 capsules per minute.

This machine is specifically designed to fill pellets.

Farmatic:

Farmatic Model 2000/15, 2000/30 and 2000/60 capsule filling machine gives outputs of 40000, 80000 and 160000 capsules per hour.

Hofliger and Karg:

Hofliger and Karg model GKF-303, GKF-602, GKF-1500 and GKF-2500 capsule filling machine number represents filling of capsules per minute.

Macofar:

MT-12, MT-13/1 and MT-13/2 capsule filling machine fills 35000, 5000 and 10000 capsules per hour

mG2:

Model G36/4- fills 150 capsules per minute, G36/2-fills 300 capsules per minute, G36-fills 600 casules per hour, G37N- fills 1600 capsules per hour and G38- fills 1000 capsules per hour.

Handles pellets, powder or granules

Osaka:

Osaka Model 180 capsule filling machine fills 70000-165000 capsules per hour or 400000 caspules per hour.

Handles powders or capsules

Perry:

Perry Model CF ACCOFIL capsule filling machine fills 60000 capsules per hour

Handles only powder mixtures.

Zanasi:

Zanasi Model LZ-64 fills 4000 capsules per hour and AZ-20 fills 9000 - 20000 capsules per hour . Z-5000 fills 70000 capsules per hour.

Capable of filling all types of powders, granules and tablets.

Common working of all the filling machines:

  • Powder is auger fed from the supply hopper to the filling chamber.
  • Tamping of powder into the holes of the filling disc is performed at five successive stations.
  • An additional station is available for the insertion of the tablets or pellets.
  • Ejection of the crushed and unjoined capsules.
References:
  1. Lieberman, Herbert A, Lachman, Leon (2009), Industrial pharmacy: Pharmaceutical dosage form-tablets. Banglore, Pune. ISBN:978-81-239-1679-8.
  2. http://wikipedia.org/wiki/capsule_filling_machines.
  3. Gilbert S. Banker(2002), Modern Pharmaceutics: Pharmaceutical dosage form-tablets. 4th edition. New York. ISBN: 0-8247-0674-9.
  4. Ansel howard C, Allen V, Popovich G, Ansel's Pharmaceutical dosage form-tablet. 8th edition. ISBN: 0-7817-4612-4.
  5. http://www.amazon.com/Sanven-Semi-automatic-Capsule-Filling-Machine/dp/B00C8Z77MO.

  6. http://www.kwangdah.com/kdf-6-capsule-filling-machine.htm.

About the Author

Saraswathi.B's picture
Author: Saraswathi.B

Assistant Professor in St. johns college of pharmacy

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