Pharmaceutical Aerosols

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Book Chapter  contents : Pharmaceutical Aerosols

1) Introduction to Aerosols

1.1) Definition

1.2) Advantages and Disadvantages

1.3) Principle / Mechanism and working of Aerosols

2) General Formulation and Manufacturing components of Aerosols

3) Types of Aerosol Systems

3.1) Solution system / Two Phase system

3.2) Water based system / Two components or Three components system

3.3) Suspension / Dispersion system

3.4) Foam system / Emulsion systems

3.5) Aqueous stable foams

3.6) Non-Aqueous stable foams

3.7) Quick Breaking foams

3.8) Thermal Foams

3.9) Intra Nasal Aerosols

4) Classification of Aerosols

4.1) Space Sprays

4.2) Surface Coats

4.3) Foam

4.4) Inhalers

- Pressure Metered Dose Inhalers (pMDI's)

- Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI's)

- Nebulizers

4.5) Intra Nasal Aerosols

5) Components of Aerosols / Aerosol package

5.1) Propellants

- Fluorinated Hydrocarbons

- Hydrocarbons

- Compressed Gases

5.2) Product Concentrate

- Active Ingredient/s + solvent + Surfactant + Antioxidant + Suspending agents etc.

5.3) Containers

5.3.1) Metal

- Tin plated steel (Side-seam or Three, Two piece or Drawn, Tin-free steel)

- Aluminum

- Stainless steel

5.3.2) Glass

- Uncoated glass

- Plastic coated glass

5.3.3) Plastics

5.4) Actuators

5.4.1 A) Spray Actuators 5.4.1 B) Foam Actuators

5.4.1 C) Solid stream Actuators 5.4.1 D) Special / Mist Actuators

5.5) Valve and Valve Assembly

5.5.1) a) Continuous spray valves b) Metering valves

5.5.2) - Actuator

- Valve Stem

- Gasket

- Valve Spring

- Ferrule/ Mounting cup/ Valve cup

- Valve Body/ Container Housing

- Dip tube

6) Manufacturing / Formulation and Filling of Aerosols

6.1) Mixing of Propellant and Product concentrate

6.2) Filling of contents into container

- Cold Filling

- Pressure Filling and Rotating Filling Machine

- Compressed gas filling

7) Packaging, Labeling and Storage of Aerosols

8) Quality control of Pharmaceutical Aerosols

8.1) Testing of Propellant

8.2) Testing of Valves, Actuators and Dip tubes

8.3) Testing of Containers

8.4) Weight checking

8.5) Leakage Test

8.6) Spray Testing/ Spray Pattern

9) Evaluation of Aerosols

9.1) Flammability and Combustibility

9.1 A) Flame Projection and flash back 9.1 B) Flash Point

9.2) Physico - Chemical Characteristics

9.2 A) Vapour Pressure

9.2 B) Density

9.2 C) Moisture Content

9.2 D) Identification of Propellant

9.2 E) Concentrate - Propellant ratio

9.3) Performance Test

9.3 A) Aerosol Valve Discharge Rate

9.3 B) Spray Patterns

9.3 C) Dose Uniformity / Dosage Testing with Metered valves

9.3 D) Net Contents

9.3 E) Foam stability

9.3 F) Particle Size determination

9.3 G) Leakage Test

9.4) Biological Testing

9.4 A) Therapeutic Activity

9.4 B) Toxicity

9.4 C) Extractable substances

10) Therapeutic Applications of Aerosols

11) Bibliography

About the Author

Naseeb Basha Shaik's picture

Working as Assistant Professor, Pharmaceutics Department at G.Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad.

Comments

Albert Ana-Maria's picture

What do you think about aerosols at children? What are the advantages and disadvantages ?

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