Anantha Naik Nagappa and Uday Venkat Mateti
Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka-576 104
What are Chronic Diseases and briefly discuss the burden of Chronic Diseases?
Chronic Diseases are those which remain for long period with sustained suffering and death. Here the patient continuously loses health and quality of life. The cure for the Chronic Diseases is elusive and it the major cause for the disability. For example: Asthma, Cancer, Diabetes and Heart Diseases. Globally Chronic Diseases are causing premature death and imposing a significant economic burden on individuals and society.
What are the types of Chronic Disease?
The Chronic Diseases are communicable and non-communicable diseases based on whether they are transmitted or not. For example: Human immunodeficiency virus is communicable Chronic Disease where as diabetes is not non-communicable disease.
Give the classification of Chronic Diseases
Chronic Diseases can be classified on the basis of complex causality multiple risk factors (Diabetes Type -II, Hypertension), long latency periods a prolonged course of illness functional impairment or disability (human immunodeficiency virus).
What is the difference between the screening and diagnosis of Chronic Diseases?
The Chronic Diseases are communicable and non-communicable carrying huge public health burden and the early detection offers opportunities for lessened burden of suffering and economic inputs. Detecting the diseases in a population is called screening and diagnosis is a confirmation of disease to begin treatment in an individual patient.
Identify the challenges in Chronic Disease Management?
The Chronic Disease development can be manipulated in a patient. If the patient and his/her relatives fully understands the details of disease, medications used for and importance of life style modifications. Ignorance about these aspects along with myths and misunderstanding leading to wrong practices is a major challenge. Availability of the infrastructure facilities required for management of disease is another challenge.
What is the importance of patient education in Chronic Disease Management?
The Chronic Disease Management is difficult to achieve due to accessibility and not due to non-availability of therapy. The patient education can be useful in improving accessibility, in the model of knowledge, attitude and practice. The aim of the Chronic Disease Management is to ensure each patient becomes competent of self-management his/her of condition.
What is the role of public health in Chronic Disease Management?
The Chronic Disease Management is important as many of the chronic diseases affect large number of population in society. The public health education can be an effective tool lessens the burden of disease. The public health measures regarding hygiene and sanitation can control the epidemics of communicable diseases. For non-communicable diseases public health messages regarding importance of diet and physical activity can play a significant role in control of diabetes, hypertension and obesity.
Highlight the preventive care in Chronic Disease Management?
The complications and causality of communicable diseases are usually high causing loss of human life and wealth. The preventive measures are proved highly effective in terms of lessening the burden of illness and savings of money. In the scenario of increased patient burden has put health care systems under lot of pressure due to mismatch of demand and supply. The Chronic Disease Management acts as a brake and brings down the patients reporting to treatment for critical health care. Hence the sustained practice of Chronic Disease Management is very important for balancing the healthcare facilities and the patient load.
What is the role of pharmacist in Chronic Disease Management?
Pharmacist being well versed with basic and applied pharmaceutical sciences is in the right place to provide patient education and counseling as part of community pharmacy services. The patients after receiving the prescriptions have to visit the pharmacy to fill them. While they prescriptions are dispensed the pharmacists interacts with the patients and makes a care plan focusing on drug, disease and life style modifications which will help the patients to manage their condition
What are tools used to measure the burden of illness?
The burden of illness is a parameter used in epidemiology, pharmacoeconomics and pharmacovigilance to estimate the impact of the disease on the society and public. The burden of illness can be calculated by estimating the prevalence, prevalence rate, incidence and incidence rate of the population.
What is the importance of non-pharmacological therapy in Chronic Disease Management?
The non-pharmacological treatment forms the basis of corrective and counter measures for the progression of the disease for example: Restriction of common salt is advised for the management of hypertension which has a profound effect in keeping the hypertension under control. The non-pharmacological therapies are being non-medication based is easy to adopt and practice. However in reality are neglected and under-utilized as the patients and healthcare providers are relying on pharmacological interventions.
What is the role of alternative medicine in Chronic Disease Management?
The patients with Chronic Diseases are likely to use medicines lifelong. All the medicines carry a burden of harmful side effects. It is a conveyance faith of the public that non-allopathic drugs do not harm much like allopathic medicines. Hence many patients are found to self-Medicare themselves in a hope and expectations that the alternative medicines can help them in getting rid of the disease. In that manner the people with Chronic Diseases are indulged in using alternative medicines along with allopathic medicines. However some patients consider consulting alternative medicine expert to treat them. The major drawback of alternative medicines lacking evidence of safety and efficacy.
What are the complications of drug treatment in Chronic Disease Management?
In Chronic Disease Management as patients is under continuous observation of health care professionals. Therese is a little chance the failure to identify signals of complications of established drug regimens. The complications due to long term treatment are inevitable. However early detection helping to take the appropriate dose adjustment or change over to safer medicines can act as guard against complications of drug treatment of Chronic Diseases.
Collaborative care practice in Chronic Disease Management
The patient condition will be changing from serious to ambulatory / treated at home in Chronic Diseases. The continuity of care is fundamental for ensuring the patient with good quality of life. The doctors and nurses are limited to hospital settings and practically not accessible to patients in ambulatory/ treated at home. As a result of it the condition of the patient worsens due to non-availability or supervision by healthcare professionals in ambulatory/ treated at home patients. To address this need the wellness centers and patient counseling centers are established by clinical pharmacists or other healthcare professionals. The collaboration among the doctors' nurses and pharmacists in a team is most cost effective approach for Chronic Disease Management.
Describe the role of Hygiene as an intervention in Chronic Disease Management?
The hygiene is the fundamental requirement for health. The infectious diseases bank on poor hygiene and causing diseases like anemia due worm infestations. The diseases like Tuberculosis, Human immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis can be prevented by practice of public hygiene. The patients with Diabetes are susceptible to infections due to poor hygiene.
What is the role of health economics in Chronic Disease Management?
The goal of Chronic Disease Management is to make the treatment cost effective and affordable to the patients. If the patients are treated without the support of Chronic Disease Management the treatment become un-planned giving the opportunity for the disease to become serious condition requiring frequent hospitalizations leading to increased expenditure for the treatment. A well documented Chronic Disease Management approach gives the data for health economic evaluations like cost effective analysis. The health economic evaluations are necessary for documenting the value of Chronic Disease Management practice.
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