Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) in pharmacy :
Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are a special kind of transistor-like nanoelectronic devices which is composed of integrating electrical and mechanical mechanical actuators, pumps, or motorssensors, on a common silicon substrate. The special charecteristics of NEMS is that it posses low mass, high mechanical resonance frequencies, potentially large quantum mechanical effects such as zero point motion, and a high surface-to-volume ratio.For this reasons NEMS is the enabling technology allowing the development of various smart materials. Due to the following features Nems is gaining a huge popularity among the nonscientists.
1.Nano electro mechanical devices are so sensitive that it can measure extremely small displacement and very weak forces at the molecular level.
2. NEMS devices are as effective as micro device but the good thing is that it is so tiny that 100 NEMS devices can be fit in the same space as one single micro devices
3. NEMS can act as a sensor of devices which can measure the chemical, mechanical ,biological activity in the environment and as well as it can function automatically like robot after receiving the information from the sensors
4. One of the major advantages of NEMS is that it consumes very less energy.
5. The other advantages of NEMS is that it is highly cost effective , accurate and precise.
There are many pharmaceutical application are also found in literatures
1.MEMS or NEMS technology offer a great opportunities to solve the dose releted problems during the emergency medical needs. These products have the potential to completely control drug release, meeting requirements for on-demand adjustable continuous administration for long periods
2.Artificial pancreas in the form of NEMS are effectivly used to manage diabetes sucessfully.The insulin release of the NEMS is govorned by the glucose concentration present in the blood.
3. MEMS and NEMS device can be utilized for non-invasive in-flight monitoring of astronaut immune status.(31)
Microarray provides a basis to genotype thousands of different loci at a time, which is useful for association and linkage studies to isolate chromosomal regions related to a particular disease. This array also can be used to locate chromosomal aberrations related to cancer, such as segments of allelic imbalance, which can be identified by loss of heterozygosity. By comparative genomic hybridization techniques on genomic DNA, amplified or deleted regions in the chromosomes can be identified, such as in the case of oral cancer.
Microfluidic structures are mainly belong to micropneumatic systems, i.e. microsystems for the handling of off-chip fluids like liquid pumps, gas valves, etc. and microfluidic structures for the on-chip handling of nano- and picolitre volumes. Recent literature survey reveals that the most successful commercial application of microfluidics is the inkjet printhead. Significant research has also been applied to microfluidic synthesis and production of different biofunctionalized nanoparticles including quantum dots (QDs) and metallic nanoparticles and other industrially relevant materials (e.g., polymer particles).In addition, the progress in microfluidic manufacturing allow the devices to produced in low-cost plastics and part quality may be verified automatically.(33)
31.Nanoelectromechanical devices for sensing applications, Functional Materials for Micro and Nanosystems - EMRS, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 126(1), 2007, 24-34, doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2006.10.049
32. Microarray and its applications. Rajeshwar Govindarajan, Jeyapradha Duraiyan,1 Karunakaran Kaliyappan, and Murugesan Palanisamy. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. Aug 2012; 4(Suppl 2): S310-S312. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.100283