Which one of the following classes of drugs causes side effects like dryness of mouth, tachycardia, urinary retention, constipation, blurring of vision, precipitation of glaucoma, drowsiness and impairment of cognition?

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(A) Anti-adrenergic
(B) Anti-cholinergic
(C) An ti-serotonergic
(D) Anti-dopaminergic


Saraswathi.B's picture




Antiadrenergic agents inhibit the signals of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The adrenergic antagonists inhibiting adrenergic receptors.

Inhibiting the adrenergic signaling is by catecholamine synthesis blocking is theother method

Many antiadrenergic agents used as antihypertensives include

Centrally acting: Clonidine, Guanfacine, Methyldopa, Moxonidine, Prazosin, Rescinnamine, Reserpine, Rilmenidine etc

Ganglion -blocking: Mecamylamine, Trimethaphan etc

Peripherally acting : Guanethidine, Indoramin, Doxazosin etc

Beta Blocker : Non-selective agents :Alprenolol, Bucindolol, Carteolol, Carvedilol, Labetalol, Nadolol, Penbutolol, Pindolol, Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol etc

v1-Selective agents: Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol, Bisoprolol, Celiprolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol, Nebivolol etc

v2-Selective agents: Butaxamine


  • vasoconstrictor
  • Treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and cardiac failure
  • Treatment of some urinary bladder dysfunction conditions
  • Treatment of arrhythmias and angina pectoris

Side effects

  • Constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle
  • Asthma

Anticholinergic agent

An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

Anticholinergics inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells.

Medical uses

Anticholinergic drugs are used to treat a variety of conditions

  • Gastrointestinal disorders - gastritis, diarrhea, pylorospasm, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Genitourinary disorders - cystitis, urethritis, and prostatitis
  • Respiratory disorders - asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Sinus bradycardia
  • Insomnia
  • Dizziness

Side effects

  • Ataxia - loss of coordination
  • Decreased mucus production in the nose and throat
  • Xerostomia or dry-mouth with possible acceleration of dental caries
  • Cessation of perspiration
  • Increased body temperature
  • Pupil dilation - mydriasis
  • Loss of accommodation - loss of focusing ability, blurred vision (cycloplegia)
  • Double-vision - diplopia
  • Increased heart rate - tachycardia
  • Tendency to be easily startled
  • Urinary retention

Possible effects in the central nervous system are

Confusion, Disorientation, Agitation, Euphoria or dysphoria,Respiratory depression, Memory problems, Inability to concentrate, Incoherent speech, Irritability, Mental confusion, Unusual sensitivity to sudden sounds, Photophobia,Visual disturbances, Visual, auditory, or other sensory hallucinations, seizures, coma, and death, Orthostatic hypotension, precipitation of glaucoma, drowsiness and impairment of cognition

Serotonin antagonist

A serotonin antagonist is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.

5-HT2A antagonists

Cyproheptadine, Methysergide, Quetiapine

5-HT2A/2C antagonists

Ketanserin, Risperidone, Trazodone,Clozapine, etc

5-HT3 antagonists

Dolasetron, Granisetron, Ondansetron, Palonosetron, Tropisetron etc

Non-selective 5-HT antagonists

Methysergide, Chlorpromazine, Cyproheptadine, Pizotifen, Oxetorone, Spiperone, Ritanserin, Parachlorophenylalanine, Metergoline,Propranolol, Miansein etc


To treat depression, anxiety disorders, panic attacks and personality disorders. Side effects

Sexual side effects, Fatigue, weight loss, apathy, insomnia, headaches and pupil dilation, anxiety, nervousness, weakness and tremors.

Dopamine antagonist

A dopamine antagonist is a drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.

Examples: Clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone

Side effects

Anxiety disorders, Dysphoria, clinical depression, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Galactorrhea, Hyperprolactinaemia, Increased appetite,Irritability, aggression etc

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