15. most of the emergency contraceptives have one of the followings active ingredients ?

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  1. estradiol
  2. norethidron
  3. misoprostol
  4. levonorgesterel


Saraswathi.B's picture




Estradiol is also called as 17 v - estradiol which is an steroid and the sex hormone. it develops and maintenance the reproductive system of the female and regulates the estrous and menstrual cycle in the female reproductive system. it is also important in the development of tissues and bones.

It is also found in most of the vertebrates like crustaceans, fish and other animal species. it is produced with in follicles of female ovaries and also in other endocrine.

Mechanism of action

Estradiol is an agonist of a nuclear steroid hormone and a estrogen receptor. the

sub types of the estradiol binds to the receptor and activates the receptor. it leads to gene transcription and mediates biological effects in the body.


Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 is used in the induce abortions and the labour.


  • treat stomach ulcers
  • treat postpartum bleeding

side effects

  • abdominal pain
  • nausea
  • flatulence
  • headache
  • dyspepsia
  • vomiting
  • constipation


Misoprostol + myometrial cells ---------- strong myometrial contractions ------------ expulsion of tissue ---------- dilation and softening of the cervix.


Levonorgestrel is the hormonal contraceptives and it is an emergency contraceptive pill, contraceptive implants, intrauterine systems, replacement hormone therapy etc.

Side effects

  • dizziness
  • headache
  • nausea
  • abdominal pain
  • uterine pain
  • delay of menses
  • heavy menses
  • uterine bleeding or fatigue


Norethindrone is called as norethisterone. it prevents ovulation and it is an female hormone.


  • treat menstrual disorders
  • endometriosis
  • abnormal vaginal bleeding

Side Effect

  • hives
  • difficulty breathing
  • swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

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