What is angina pectoris

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Mridula jayaraman's picture

Angina Pectoris (1) It is a pain syndrome due to induction of an adverse oxygen demand in a portion of the myocardium. Three principal forms of angina are- A)Classical Angina- It is a common form of angina. In classical angina the attacks are predictable, which are basically provoked due to exercise, emotions, eating or coitus and subside when the increased energy demand is withdrawn. Severe atherosclerosis occurs in large coronary arteries. Coronary obstruction is resulted. Hence the blood fails to increase in large demand situation, leading to ischemic pain. B)Variant/Prinzmetal Angina- It is an uncommon form of angina, which may arise at rest or during sleep. Here in this form of angina the contraction of vascular smooth muscles takes place which leads to tightening of the arterial wall. Hence, the artery gets narrowed causing the slowing or stoppage of blood flow to heart. C)Unstable Angina (2) - There is an increased severe pain in this form of angina, where the rupture of atheromatous plaques; platelets deposition and occlusion of coronary artery takes place leading to vasospasm. Anti-anginal drugs used are- a)First choices of drug for angina are Organic Nitrates - Nitroglycerine, GTN (glyceryl trinitrate), used as a potent vasodilator (which makes oxygen available to heart muscle). GTN is given through sublingual route for aborting the attack, the GTN acts rapidly through sublingual route (within 1-2 mins). b)Beta-blocker- Propanolol, Atenolol, Metoprolol (cardioselectives) are given to reduce the cardiac work and oxygen consumption (decreases the heart rate). c)Calcium Channel Blockers- Verapamil, Nifedipine and Diltiazem etc are given to decrease the workload of heart (reduce contraction of heart muscles, smooth muscle relaxation). d)Potassium channel openers (2) - Nicorandil, Pinacidil are the drugs given which provides prominent action on vascular and smooth muscle relaxations. e)Miscellaneous drugs are- Dipyridamole (used as a potent coronary dilator for long term prophylaxis.), Lidoflazine (used in blocking calcium channels) and Oxyphedrine (used for improving cardiac metabolism) and many more... References 1- K.D. Tripathi; Essentials of Medical Pharmacology; Second Edition; Jaypee Publication; Page no.-(507-509) , (515-519) and Page no.- 521 2-R.D. Budhiraja; Elementary Pharmacology and Toxicology; Fourth Revised Edition; Popular Prakashan Publication; Page no.-(272-273) and Page no.-277.

mridula jayaraman

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Francine's picture

Commonly know as angina, Angina pectoris is medical term to describe the temporary severe chest pain due to ischemia of the heart muscle Angina pectoris can be classified as follow: Stable Angina (Effort Angina); Unstable Angina(Crescendo Angina); Microvascular Angina(Angina Syndrome X) Major risk factors (Age (? 55 yo for men, ? 65 for women), Diabetes mellitus (DM),Hypertension), smoking and other medical conditions (hyperthyroidism, hypoxemia) and certains cardiac issues(valvular heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)are the mainly causes of Anigina Pectoris. Nitroglycerin, Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are the main Drugs to treat this medical condition. Ref: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/angina_pectoris/article_em.htm

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